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Behavioural economics in health care

Behavioral economics is the study of how people consider their options and come to decisions. It recognizes that they are not the rational and reasoned people described in the classical economic theory of supply and demand. Instead, of being emotional and full of cognitive quirks, they don’t evaluate risks and don’t reward problems adequately.

The goal of behavioral economics is to identify the different triggers that change behavior and then use those triggers to create an environment that makes it easier for people to make healthy decisions. Within behavioral economics, techniques and programs exist to help people make decisions that are supposedly better, or at least more rational. These tools have been employed by the health insurance sector to influence behavior in a number of ways.

The Four Cornerstones of Healthcare Behavioral Economics

Let’s review the 4 fundamentals of behavioral economics along with some brief explanations of how they work.

1. Intention-behaviour gap – The difference between what a person intends to do and what they actually do. The gap between intention and behavior is often evident in our lives, even in seemingly small decisions.

For instance, if your goal is to get up at 6 a.m. for a workout, but choose to hit the snooze button instead, there is a disconnect between your intention and your behavior. Similarly, people with diabetes may intend to check their blood sugar levels before each meal, but for various reasons do not always do so.

2. Present Bias – The Instant, Tangible Gratification That Drives Human Motivation. As humans, we prefer immediate gratification to delayed gratification. Current positive feelings are a stronger motivation for us than the potential for positive feelings in the future. So instead of going to the local pharmacy for the flu shot, we can choose to relax at home with another beer or glass of wine. We can taste the drink immediately and feel satisfied, while the potential benefits of getting the flu shot (eg, not getting the flu) are more distant and less tangible.

3. Loss aversion – The preference for avoiding something a person already has rather than gaining something they don’t already have. People are twice as likely to put in the effort to not lose something than to gain it. By loss aversion, we understand that people overvalue the things they already own because they feel like they own them.

For this reason, stimulating certain health behaviors in advance – with the consequence that this incentive is lost if the behaviors are not completed – is a stronger motivator than providing the incentive to gain something at the end. performance of the behavior.

4. Decision Architecture – ‍ The dependence of a person’s decisions on factors such as the presentation of information, the existence of a default option, and the number of options available. In fact, when people have too many options, they are discouraged from making a choice.

And even when there are few options, the way those options are presented can also influence the choices they make.

Behavioral economics’ effects on healthcare

Patient medical outcomes (and health outcomes more generally) depend on more than just medical treatment. In Behavioral Economics for Health Care, people will learn the impact that behavioral factors affecting patient experience, physicians, and their interaction can have on decision-making, costs, the care pathway, well-being, and even survival. 

In this, people can explore how psychological biases, benchmarks, environmental cues, heuristics, and habits play a role in everything from prescriptions to testing to continuity of patient care. Participants can earn continuing education credits. Learn to better assess and recognize your own biases while discovering how people can play an important role in patient success. Reflect, discuss, and gain proven strategies and tools for overcoming bias and making systemic decisions in your role as a healthcare professional.

Can behavioural economics encourage people to adopt healthier lifestyle choices?

In health care, we are certainly concerned about finding ways to save money and avoid unnecessary or ineffective care, but we are also concerned about maximizing people’s well-being. Behavioral economics offers low-intensity nudges to help people make better decisions and avoid bad decisions. But instead of dictating, nudges involve a degree of agency and control.

Unlike traditional economics, which assumes that people always make decisions in their own best interests, behavioral economics assumes that people often make biased decisions that are not always in their best interests. For example, many people choose the instant gratification of overeating and ignore the long-term harms of obesity.

How to use behavioral health economics?

Population health is based on the concept of a dedicated provider caring for a defined population with a focus on the whole person. So why is it often difficult to convince patients to take their medications as specified, or to practice self-management for chronic diseases? Also, why don’t we doctors always follow the same advice as ourselves? Perhaps our public health strategies would be more effective if we incorporated more knowledge about how and why people make the decisions they make.

Behavioral economics, building on both psychology and traditional economic theory, may prove to be a useful new public health tool by helping us understand why patients do what they do. Behavioral economics states that people don’t always make rational decisions about their health based on a careful calculation of risks and benefits. Consumer and patient decisions are more likely to be strongly influenced by emotional intelligence and the environment, as well as the way health care choices are presented.

Conclusion

Using behavioral economics as an alternative to the standard tools of health economics, attempts are made to more clearly diagnose the disorders of current health care. A behavioral perspective gives meaning to important contradictions – from the seemingly irrational choices we sometimes make as patients, to the incongruous behavior of doctors, to the quagmire of the long reform debate.

With the new health law coming into effect, it is more important than ever that consumers, health leaders and policymakers driving change consider the power and sources of our behavior when it comes to health.

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Let's Get Ethical: Ethical Boundaries for PTs/OTs

A 2.5 hour webinar approved for CEUs by the

AOTA – # 02517 

NY Board of Physical Therapy

The Ohio Physical Therapy Association # 21S2571

The NJ Board of PT # 2110-14

Meets Requirements for PTs/PTAs in:

AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, IA, IL, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS,

MT, NC, ND, NH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY

due to recognition of approval from another state chapter of the APTA (Ohio PTA)

or another state board of PT (NY, NJ)

Objectives to facilitate clinician ethical practice

 

1. Define ethics and the Code of Ethics of the APTA/AOTA to practice in an ethical manner

2. Analyze the boundaries of ethical priniciples for PTs/OTs to solve ethical dilemmas

3. Apply APTA ethical principles to professional practice through case studies

4. Apply AOTA ethical principles to professional practice through case studies

A posttest/survey will be give after live and on-demand webinars. After purchasing an on-demand webinar you will be redirected to a webpage with the webinar and posttest links. A CE certificate will be emailed following posttest completion

Optimizing the Patient Experience

A 1 hour webinar approved for CEUs by the

AOTA – #02034

NY Board of Physical Therapy

Pending Approval by the NJ Board of PT – 2022 – 2024

Meets Requirements for PTs/PTAs in:

AL, AR, AZ CO, GA, IA, IL, KS, NC, NE, NH, ND, NM, OR, SC, WA, WI

Objectives related to professional development

1) Identify the components of bedside manner/ patient satisfaction and their link to healthcare outcomes

2) Apply strategies using social psychology to optimize the patient experience

3) Implement an organizational approach to improve patient satisfaction scores

A posttest/survey will be given following live and on-demand webinars. After purchasing the on-demand webinar you will be redirected to a webpage with the webinar and posttest links A CE certificate will be emailed following posttest completion

Improving Patient Adherence to Home Exercise Programs

 1 hour webinar approved for CEUs by the

AOTA – #02036

NY Board of Physical Therapy

The NJ Board of PT # 2111-80

Meets Requirements for PTs/PTAs in:

AL, AR, AZ CO, GA, IA, IL, KS, NC, NE, NH, ND, NM, OR, SC, UT, WA, WI

Objectives to facilitate patient/client goal achievement

1. Identify the benefits of home exercise programs

2) Define differing theories of motivation/influence

3) Apply social psychology to HEP prescription/plan

A posttest/survey will be given following live and on-demand webinars. After purchasing an on-demand webinar you will be redirected to a webpage with the webinar and posttest links. A CE certificate will be emailed following posttest completion

The Science of Bedside Manner and Patient Satisfaction

A 2 hour webinar approved for CEUs by the

AOTA – #02037

NY Board of Physical Therapy

Ohio Physical Therapy Association # 21S2565

The NJ Board of PT # 2110-15

Meets Requirements for PTs/PTAs in:

AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, IA, IL, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS,

MT, NC, ND, NH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY

due to recognition of approval from another state chapter of the APTA (Ohio PTA)

or another state board of PT (NJ, NY)

Objectives to facilitate patient/client goal achievement

1. Develop and improve empathy skills

2. Identify the link between bedside manner/patient satisfaction and health outcomes

3. Measure patient satisfaction in a valid/reliable manner

4. Apply social psychology techniques to improve patient satisfaction

5) Integrate organizational strategies to improve patient satisfaction scores

A posttest/survey will be give after live and on-demand webinars. After purchasing an on-demand webinar you will be redirected to a webpage with the webinar and posttest links. A CE certificate will be emailed following posttest completion

Effective Leadership and Communication in Rehab

A 1 hour webinar approved for CEUs by the

AOTA – #02299

NY Board of Physical Therapy

Meets Requirements for PTs/PTAs in:

AL, AR, AZ CO, GA, IA, IL, KS, NC, NE, NH, ND, NM, OR, SC, WA, WI

Objectives related to professional development

 

1. Define leadership and various leadership styles

2. Identify successful leadership styles in healthcare/rehab

3. Implement effective leadership communication strategies in rehab

A posttest/survey will be given after live and on-demand webinars. After purchasing an on-demand webinar you will be redirected to a webpage with the webinar and posttest links. A CE certificate will be emailed following posttest completion

The New World of Rehab: Addressing Burnout

A 1-hour webinar approved for CEUs by the

AOTA – #02035

NY Board of Physical Therapy

Meets Requirements for PTs/PTAs in:

AL, AR, AZ, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, ID, IA, IL, KS, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS,

MT, NC, ND, NH, OR, RI, SC, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY

due to recognition by another state board of PT (NY)

Objectives related to professional development

 

1. Identify the causes of rehab burnout

2. Recognize the signs of rehab burnout

3. Apply strategies to prevent/reduce rehab burnout

A posttest/survey will be given after live and on-demand webinars. After on-demand purchase you will be redirected to a webpage with the video link/posttest link. A CEU certificate will be emailed following post-test completion